Bit Manipulation Application Small to Capital Letter

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One of several applications of bit manipulation is converting a letter from small to capital or vice versa by choosing a mask and a proper bit operation. For example, the a letter has this binary representation 01(1)00001 while its capital counterpart has 01(0)00001. They differ solely in the bit in parenthesis. In this case, converting the a letter from small to capital is basically setting the bit in parenthesis to one. To do so, we do the following:

convert small letter to captial letter.
     a: 01100001
  mask: 11011111  <-- (0xDF)  11(0)11111
a&mask: 01000001  <-- A letter

The code for converting a letter to A letter is:

#include <cstdio>

int main()
    char op1 = 'a';  // "a" letter (i.e. small case)
    int mask = 0xDF; // choosing a proper mask

    printf("a (AND) mask = A\n");
    printf("%c   &   0xDF = %c\n", op1, op1 & mask);
    return 0;
a (AND) mask = A
a   &   0xDF = A

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