File I/O

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C++ file I/O is done via streams. The key abstractions are:

std::istream for reading text.

std::ostream for writing text.

std::streambuf for reading or writing characters.

Formatted input uses operator>>.

Formatted output uses operator<<.

Streams use std::locale, e.g., for details of the formatting and for translation between external encodings and the internal encoding.

More on streams.

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