Essential Go Concurrency  Edit on GitHub      File Issue

Limiting concurrency with semaphore

When doing CPU intensive tasks like image resizing it doesn’t make sense to create more goroutines than available CPUs.

Things will not go any faster and you might even loose performance due to additional book keeping and switching between goroutines.

One way to limit concurrency (i.e. number of gorutines you launch at the same time) is to use a semaphore.

You can enter (acquire) semaphore and leave (release) a semaphore.

A semaphore has a fixed capacity. If you exceed semaphore’s capacity, acquire blocks until a release operation frees it.

A buffered channel is a natural semaphore.

Here’s an example of using a channel acting as a semaphore to limit number of gouroutines active at any given time:

var (
	semaphoreSize = 4

	mu                 sync.Mutex
	totalTasks         int
	curConcurrentTasks int
	maxConcurrentTasks int
)

func timeConsumingTask() {
	mu.Lock()
	totalTasks++
	curConcurrentTasks++
	if curConcurrentTasks > maxConcurrentTasks {
		maxConcurrentTasks = curConcurrentTasks
	}
	mu.Unlock()

	// in real system this would be a CPU intensive operation
	time.Sleep(10 * time.Millisecond)

	mu.Lock()
	curConcurrentTasks--
	mu.Unlock()
}

func main() {
	sem := make(chan struct{}, semaphoreSize)
	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	for i := 0; i < 32; i++ {
		// acquire semaphore
		sem <- struct{}{}
		wg.Add(1)

		go func() {
			timeConsumingTask()
			// release semaphore
			<-sem
			wg.Done()
		}()
	}

	// wait for all task to finish
	wg.Wait()

	fmt.Printf("total tasks         : %d\n", totalTasks)
	fmt.Printf("max concurrent tasks: %d\n", maxConcurrentTasks)
}
total tasks         : 32
max concurrent tasks: 4

We use technique described in waiting for goroutines to finish to wait for all tasks to finish.

Often the right amount of concurrent tasks is equal to number of CPUs, which can be obtained with runtime.NumCPU().

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