# Remove elements from slice

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We use `[]int` in our examples but the code works for slices of all types.

## Remove a single element at a given index

``````s := []int{10, 11, 12, 13}

i := 2 // index of 12
s = append(s[:i], s[i+1:]...)

fmt.Printf("s: %#v\n", s)``````
``````s: []int{10, 11, 13}
``````

## Remove multiple elements

``````s := []int{10, 11, 12, 13}

i := 1 // index of 11
n := 2 // remove 2 elements

s = append(s[:i], s[i+n:]...)

fmt.Printf("s: %#v\n", s)``````
``````s: []int{10, 13}
``````

## Efficiency of removal

Note on efficiency: Go compiler is smart enough to re-use the space in the original slice, so this method is quite efficient. It doesn't allocate new space and merely copies the elements within the slice. We can verify this:

``````s := []int{10, 11, 12, 13}
fmt.Printf("&s[0]: %p, cap(s): %d\n", &s[0], cap(s))
fmt.Printf("s: %#v\n", s)

i := 1 // index of 11
n := 2 // remove 2 elements

s = append(s[:i], s[i+n:]...)

fmt.Print("\nAfter removal:\n")
fmt.Printf("&s[0]: %p, cap(s): %d\n", &s[0], cap(s))
fmt.Printf("s: %#v\n", s)

s = append(s, 1, 2, 3, 4)
fmt.Printf("\nAfter appending beyond remaining capacity:\n")
fmt.Printf("&s[0]: %p, cap(s): %d\n", &s[0], cap(s))
fmt.Printf("s: %#v\n", s)``````
``````&s[0]: 0xc0000140a0, cap(s): 4
s: []int{10, 11, 12, 13}

After removal:
&s[0]: 0xc0000140a0, cap(s): 4
s: []int{10, 13}

After appending beyond remaining capacity:
&s[0]: 0xc000074000, cap(s): 8
s: []int{10, 13, 1, 2, 3, 4}
``````

`%p` formatting directive prints the physical address in memory of a variable. We can verify that `s` points to the same physical memory and has the same capacity before and after removal, so the underlying array.

We can also see that appending 4 elements, which is beyond remaining capacity of 2, caused the array to be re-allocated.

## Optimized, in-place removal

If we don't care to preserve the order of elements, we can optimize removal even further:

``````s := []int{10, 11, 12, 13}

i := 1 // index of 11
lastIdx := len(s) - 1

s[i] = s[lastIdx]
s = s[:lastIdx]

fmt.Printf("s: %#v\n", s)``````
``````s: []int{10, 13, 12}
``````

We overwrite the element we want to remove with the last element in the slice and shrink the slice by 1.

This copies a single elements compared to copying all elements from `i` to end of slice. This doesn't matter in small slices but is much faster if you have slices with thousands of elements